Medicines for the treatment of kidney stones: what are they?
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Medicines for the treatment of kidney stones: what are they?, Causes, Symptoms and Complications,Treatment

Kidney stones are small aggregations of  mineral salts  ( calcium ,  oxalate ,  phosphates  and  uric acid ) that form in the urinary tract. By obstructing the physiological flow of urine, kidney stones cause  acute and excruciating pain .

Causes

What Causes Kidney Stones?

Following an unbalanced and incorrect diet, especially in the case of genetic predisposition, heavily influences the formation of kidney stones. Risk factors also include: changes in urine pH , intake of few liquids,  dehydration , advanced age , chronic urinary tract infections,  hyperthyroidism and male sex.

Did You Know That…

Renal colic, strong and acute, is a sign of a kidney stone: the two disorders are closely related.

To know more: Kidney Stones: Causes and Risk Factors

Symptoms

How Do Kidney Stones Manifest Themselves?

The excruciating and acute pain, localized on the side at the level  of the   affected  kidney , is certainly the typical symptom that the various forms of kidney stones have in common .

The symptomatic picture can be completed by: chills ,  dysuria ,  fever ,  nausea ,  blood in the urine ,  smelly and/or dark urine  and  vomiting .

If the stones are very small, the stones may be asymptomatic .

Please Note

The information on Medicines for the Treatment of Kidney Stones is not intended to replace the direct relationship between health professional and patient. Always consult your doctor and/or specialist in the presence of kidney stones and before taking any medicine to treat them or alleviate their symptoms.

Medicines

Which Drugs Can Be Used In The Presence Of Kidney Stones?

In many cases, the kidney stone is expelled spontaneously within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms, after adequate fluid intake and, possibly, analgesic drugs to relieve the painful symptoms.

Below we will briefly illustrate the drugs that can be used – following medical consultation and the production of a specific prescription by the doctor – in the presence of kidney stones.

Analgesic Drugs

Analgesic drugs are used to relieve the severe pain that can characterize kidney stones. Among the active ingredients that can be used in this sense we remember ketorolac (used above all to treat pain associated with renal colic which can be induced by the presence of kidney stones) and diclofenac , both of which can be administered either orally or parenterally ( intravenous and intramuscular for ketorolac, intramuscular for diclofenac).

Antispasmodic Drugs

Antispasmodic drugs can be used in the presence of kidney stones as they are capable of reducing the contractility of the smooth muscles . The antispasmodic active ingredient most used in these cases is scopolamine butylbromide . It can be taken orally or parenterally by intravenous or intramuscular injection, as appropriate. The doctor will prescribe to the patient the most suitable pharmaceutical form and dosage to use.

Antiemetic Drugs

Generally, the vomiting that can occur in the presence of kidney stones tends to decrease and resolve with the elimination of the pain. However, if vomiting persists, the doctor may deem it necessary to prescribe appropriate antiemetic drugs to the patient.

Other Medicines For The Treatment Of Kidney Stones

Based on the type of mineral constituting the stone, the doctor can prescribe useful drugs to reduce the formation of the aggregate or in any case contribute to fragmenting the newly formed stone (thereby encouraging its spontaneous elimination). The choice of one drug rather than another depends on the severity of the problem and the type of mineral constituting the stone.

  • Allopurinol : well-known active ingredient used for the treatment of gout , allopurinol is also indicated in the treatment of uric acid stones. It is administered orally.
  • Antibiotics : recommended in case of struvite stones ( phosphate , ammonium and  magnesium ). Please remember that this type of kidney stone is favored by a  bacterial infection ; therefore the doctor, after having isolated the pathogen responsible for the infection, will be able to prescribe the most suitable antibiotic to treat the patient.
  • Alkalizing urine : Sometimes, your doctor may find it helpful to alkalize your urine to prevent the formation of kidney stones. In this regard, we remind you that it is absolutely necessary to avoid the use of do-it-yourself remedies for the alkalization of urine. Therefore, before taking products to alkalize urine in the presence of kidney stones, it is absolutely necessary and indispensable to seek medical advice .

In 10-20% of cases, the patient is unable to eliminate the kidney stone; therefore alternative therapy is necessary:  ​​extracorporeal lithotripsy , intracorporeal lithotripsy, surgical treatment.

Finally, we would like to remind you that for all cases of kidney stones, drinking therapy  (introduction of large  quantities of water ) is essential to facilitate the extrusion of the stone.

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