Early Menopause - Diagnosis

What Is Early Menopause: Possible Consequences, Diagnosis,

Like all women in  early menopause , even patients who face this condition prematurely have an  estrogen deficiency .

What Health Problems Can Affect Women In Early Menopause?

Low  estrogen levels  can lead to changes in general health and can increase the risk of certain medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, for example .
Other health risks associated with low estrogen include:

  •  Cardiovascular problems  (increases the risk of developing  ischemia  and  stroke );
  •  Osteopenia  (reduction of bone volume);
  •  Urogenital problems  (frequent  urinary infections ,  vaginal dryness  and  painful sexual intercourse );
  •  Neurovegetative symptoms  (decreased cognitive function, loss of  muscle strength , difficulty concentrating, etc.);
  •  Periodontal disease : periodontitis (  tooth loss ) and  gum recessions ;
  •  Alteration of skin trophism  ( dry skin , appearance of  wrinkles  and  skin aging );
  •  Psychological implications  ( anxiety  and  depression ).

First part of the article:Premature Menopause: What is it? Causes and First Symptoms


How Is The Diagnosis Of Early Menopause Made?

Premature menopause is   diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:

  • History  and physical examination ;
  • Investigations to rule out other causes of amenorrhea  (absence of  menstrual flow ), which may include  pregnancy , extreme  weight loss , excessive exercise , other hormonal disorders, and some reproductive system diseases;
  • Tests  to identify other coexisting conditions , such as  autoimmune , genetic, or  thyroid disease :
    • MOC  ( Computerized Bone Mineralometry ): the risk of disorders such as osteoporosis and osteopenia is directly related to the years of estrogen deficiency;
    • Chromosomal investigation by  karyotype , to highlight genetic alterations;
    •  Antibody screening  on specific clinical indications (example: dosage  of antithyroid , antiovarian, antiadrenal antibodies, etc.).
  • Blood tests  to evaluate hormone levels:
    • Follicle stimulating hormone ( FSH ) : High levels of FSH are indicative of conditions in which the normal negative feedback originating from the  gonads  is absent; this leads to an uncontrolled release of FSH from the pituitary gland .
    • 17 beta estradiol : Estradiol is the main  estrogen hormone  produced by the follicles of the  ovaries  during the cycle. Low levels of the hormone indicate impaired ovarian function.
    • Indicators of ovarian reserve : inhibin B  and  anti -Müllerian hormone  (AMH)  are reduced. Both provide an indication of the number of follicles present in the ovaries and when they show low ovarian reserves they confirm the presence of menopause.
    • DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) , produced by the adrenal gland , begins to decline after age 30 and declines significantly with menopause.
  • Pelvic  or  transvaginal ultrasound : provides a detailed image of the ovaries and uterus , and allows you to assess whether the ovarian reserve is significantly compromised (if fewer than four follicles are present overall, early menopause is full-blown).

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