What Health Problems Can Affect Women In Early Menopause?
Low estrogen levels can lead to changes in general health and can increase the risk of certain medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, for example .
Other health risks associated with low estrogen include:
- Cardiovascular problems (increases the risk of developing ischemia and stroke );
- Osteopenia (reduction of bone volume);
- Urogenital problems (frequent urinary infections , vaginal dryness and painful sexual intercourse );
- Neurovegetative symptoms (decreased cognitive function, loss of muscle strength , difficulty concentrating, etc.);
- Periodontal disease : periodontitis ( tooth loss ) and gum recessions ;
- Alteration of skin trophism ( dry skin , appearance of wrinkles and skin aging );
- Psychological implications ( anxiety and depression ).
Premature Menopause: What is it? Causes and First Symptoms
How Is The Diagnosis Of Early Menopause Made?
Premature menopause is diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:
- History and physical examination ;
- Investigations to rule out other causes of amenorrhea (absence of menstrual flow ), which may include pregnancy , extreme weight loss , excessive exercise , other hormonal disorders, and some reproductive system diseases;
- Tests to identify other coexisting conditions , such as autoimmune , genetic, or thyroid disease :
- MOC ( Computerized Bone Mineralometry ): the risk of disorders such as osteoporosis and osteopenia is directly related to the years of estrogen deficiency;
- Chromosomal investigation by karyotype , to highlight genetic alterations;
- Antibody screening on specific clinical indications (example: dosage of antithyroid , antiovarian, antiadrenal antibodies, etc.).
- Blood tests to evaluate hormone levels:
- Follicle stimulating hormone ( FSH ) : High levels of FSH are indicative of conditions in which the normal negative feedback originating from the gonads is absent; this leads to an uncontrolled release of FSH from the pituitary gland .
- 17 beta estradiol : Estradiol is the main estrogen hormone produced by the follicles of the ovaries during the cycle. Low levels of the hormone indicate impaired ovarian function.
- Indicators of ovarian reserve : inhibin B and anti -Müllerian hormone (AMH) are reduced. Both provide an indication of the number of follicles present in the ovaries and when they show low ovarian reserves they confirm the presence of menopause.
- DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) , produced by the adrenal gland , begins to decline after age 30 and declines significantly with menopause.
- Pelvic or transvaginal ultrasound : provides a detailed image of the ovaries and uterus , and allows you to assess whether the ovarian reserve is significantly compromised (if fewer than four follicles are present overall, early menopause is full-blown).